A number of studies indicate a basis for concern about toxic chemicals in artificial turf and crumb rubber. Below is a brief compilation of recent publications on the topic. This page includes resources from government agencies, health care providers, nonprofit organizations, and peer reviewed journal articles. For more information about artificial turf and safer alternatives, also see TURI’s Artificial Turf webpage.
Resources from federal agencies
Resources from state agencies
Washington State Department of Health - Investigation of Reported Cancer among Soccer Players in Washington State, January 2017. Note: See TURI's comments on this report, and see Clapp and Brown comments on this report below.
An Assessment of Chemical Leaching, Releases to Air and Temperature at Crumb-Rubber Infilled Synthetic Turf Fields, NY State Department of Environmental Conservation & NY State Department of Health, May 2009.
Resources from agencies in Canada and Europe
Current Restriction intentions: Restricting placing on the market of plastic and rubber granulates containing PAHs above a set concentration limit for use on synthetic turf pitches, European Chemicals Agency, June 30, 2017.
Evaluation of health risks of playing sports on synthetic turf pitches with rubber granulate. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Ministry of Health Welfare and Sport. RIVM. 2017.
Resources from municipal agencies
Resources from health care providers
Resources from nonprofit organizations
Peer reviewed journal articles
Menichini, E. et al. "Artificial-turf playing fields: Contents of metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs, inhalation exposure to PAHs and related preliminary risk assessment." Science of The Total Environment, November 2011.
Dr. Philip Landrigan, MD, Director of the Children's Environmental Health Center at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, discusses the health hazards of crumb rubber artificial turf playing fields. Video published by NRDC, https://www.youtube.com/user/NRDCflix/search?query=landrigan.